Mariculture Industry Assessment Opportunity in Seychelles
Posted: Sep 9, 2013
Mariculture Industry Assessment Opportunity in Seychelles
Mariculture Industry Assessment
Mariculture in Seychelles
Africa has vast fish resources producing benefits to the continent in terms of revenue, employment and general contribution to socio-economic growth and development. The marine fish resources, in particular, are diverse with over hundred species of fish and shellfish species of commercial value.
The continent is also endowed with numerous networks of rivers and lakes for inland fisheries and aquaculture development.
Total world fish production from aquaculture is estimated at about 53 million mt with Africa contributing about 940, 440 mt (2 %), FAO, 2010.
This is in contrast to Asia where aquaculture production constituted about 89 % of the global total. Egypt leads Africa in aquaculture production at some 693, 815 MT annually, whilst in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria tops the list of producers with some 143, 207 mt of production (FAO, 2010), mainly of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Nigeria’s vibrant catfish industry is supported by a reliable hatchery and commercial feeds sector (Miller and Leschen, 2011).
Other African countries with a significant aquaculture industry include Uganda (52,250 mt), Madagascar (11,081 mt, mainly shrimps), Zanzibar (10,793 mt), Ghana (5,594 mt) and Kenya (4,452 mt), FAO, 2010.
Aquaculture production in South Africa and Namibia for shellfish (mollusks) began to increase significantly in the 2000s as a result of the entrance of mid to larger scale commercial primarily cage and pond farms.
In view of the declining capture fisheries on the continent, Africa should turn attention to commercial scale fish farming in order to maintain or improve on current supplies of fish. The present widely adopted system cannot however realize this dream.
The aquaculture practice is mainly comprised of a diverse culture system based largely on subsistence to small pond producers, small and medium scale commercial enterprises. The sector is however dominated by small ponds usually less than 400 m2 in average size. The small scale operations cannot support the food security and nutritional needs of the growing population in Africa.
The drive to food security attainment and support to enhancing livelihoods can only be met by sustainable aquaculture operations focusing on Tilapia and Catfish. However, there is need for economic empowerment through commercial prawn culture systems.
There are limited commercial aquaculture enterprises on the continent due in part to low accorded priority by national Governments to the sector, inadequate capacity and weak private sector investment etc.
For very a longtime, in comparison to the capture fisheries, the aquaculture subsector was not given priority in national policy documents as a strategic area for stimulating socio-economic development.
In contrast to Asia in particular, the weak political support to the subsector, underpinned also by weak human resources, technological and institutional capacities, has contributed to the slow pace of aquaculture development and hence its poor contribution to total fish production in Africa.
The dwindling capture fisheries production in the last decades is having impact on total fish supplies, protein intake, livelihoods and national revenue generation. In the face of this observation, the potential role of aquaculture has been underpinned in several international forums as part of the global effort for attainment of food security, economic growth, poverty alleviation and attainment of a healthy environment as enshrined in resolutions from various international conventions, meetings including the 1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, the 2002 UN organized Johannesburg World Summit for Sustainable Development, the 2005 Plan of Action form Abuja Fish for all Summit and the 2010 Conference of African Ministers of Fisheries and Aquaculture (CAMFA 1).
In Africa, the issues of food security, rural livelihoods, poverty alleviation and economic growth are of extreme concerns. The strategic development of natural resources base for sustenance of the continent is therefore of high priority as overtly underscored in the CAADP framework and one of the AU development pillars (Regional Integration).
The lack of appropriate continent strategy for coherent and comprehensive sector development is a key factor in the persistently under-development of aquaculture in Africa. A continent-wide strategic framework would obviate some of the factors that have doggedly hindered the growth of the sector.
The formulation of Pan African Aquaculture Strategy can enhance national and regional capacities for sustainable commercial aquaculture development and is in support of the overall outcome of the 2010 CAMFA in the area of food security, poverty alleviation, wealth creation and economic growth.
The strategy would provide guidelines on best practices and guiding principles that would facilitate the development of national aquaculture strategies in the AU MS, RFBs and RECS for increased food security, livelihoods and economic growth.
The African Ministers underpinned this by calling upon Member States to reiterate their commitment to develop fisheries and aquaculture sub-sectors in ways that focus on increasing productivity, profitability and sustainability. The strategy would have to be enriched by current information on needs, appropriate areas of support and requirements.
It is recognized that some progress towards sustainable commercial aquaculture development has been made in few African countries e.g. Nigeria, Egypt, Uganda, Kenya etc.
The most common system is the pond culture in earthen ponds. The use of cage culture is also gradually gaining increasing practice e.g. Ghana, Mauritius, Zimbabwe etc. Mariculture is making progress in in South Africa and Namibia whilst Mozambique and Madagascar are doing well in shrimp culture development.
Whilst few countries on the continent have made relatively steady progress towards sustainable commercial aquaculture development, the majority of the countries on the continent are still at the rudimentary level of aquaculture development.
The gathering and collation and sharing information on experiences and best practices between relatively successful countries and those at the lower end of scale of aquaculture development would help stimulate the sector development.
The assessment would set realistic benchmarks for sustainable aquaculture development that would promote investment for commercialization of the sector.
The sustainable development of aquaculture needs to be informed by best practices and lesson learnt from earlier interventions or relatively successful enterprises.
An assessment of the aquaculture industry from targeted countries could help in the formulation of best practices and lessons learning for promotion of the activities across the continent.
The overall aim of the assessment of the aquaculture is to promote expanded investment in Africa’s aquaculture industry by setting realistic benchmarks for this industry.
Objectives of the assessment
The objective is to set realistic benchmarks for sustainable commercial aquaculture development in Africa from the culture systems under examination based on farm visits, interviews with those involved in the production side of the value chain, etc.
The assessment is undertaken with the view of elaborating, packaging and disseminating best practices for expeditious development of the African aquaculture industry.
This activity aimed at assessing factors that integral to sustainable commercial aquaculture development including assessment of current practices and institutional settings such as production technology, evaluation of existing policy and legislative frameworks for sector development, support institutions (e.g. hatcheries, feed supplies etc.) disease control, pollution abatement mechanism and consideration for environmental sustainability or maintenance ecosystems integrity, public and private sector roles etc., etc.
The work will include observation and review of aquaculture practices at farms and relevant institutions in target countries that are believed to have performed relatively well towards sustainable aquaculture development and to articulate experiences and lessons learnt for dissemination on the continent.
The consultancy would basically involve taking inventory of different approaches to aquaculture elaborating a series of lessons learnt for both public and private investments.
The collated information would constitute a set of knowledge that can serve as a solid foundation for elaborating best practices for the embryonic African aquaculture industry.
This study would focus on Mariculture Seychelles.
The specific tasks will entail:
1. Evaluation of current practices, production systems, supporting facilities (e.g. hatcheries), consideration for available technologies and environmental practices, including disease control mechanisms, genetic engineering, environmental sustainability and lessons to be drawn from these practices
2. Assessment of roles of relevant collaborating institutions in the country, policy and institutional frameworks involved in aquaculture sector. This should include evaluation of institutional capacities (including human) to support sustainable aquaculture development
3. Review of existing strategies, policy and legislative frameworks in place that underpin aquaculture development noting regulations covering movement of genetic materials, disease controls, use of additives, EIA, etc. etc and implementation of international instruments or guidelines for sector development.
4. Evaluation of roles of private and public sector in sector development and lessons to be drawn in the sector development in the country. This should review indicate levels of public and private sector investments in the sector, prevailing enabling environment, incentives and any factor stimulating or impeding investments in the sector
5. Review of harvesting, processing, marketing and distribution systems and their effectiveness
6. Review of data collection and record keeping at farm level and across the reporting hierarchy [optimizing data resources] to advise on improvements;
7. Identification of areas where improvements [level of adoption of sustainable environmental practices and available technologies] can be made, or gaps requiring research along the production side of the value chain and recommendations for best practices including implementation of international guidelines or instruments for sustainable aquaculture development
i. The assessment is expected to result in a document detailing the status of aquaculture in the country, institutional arrangements and best practices along the entire value chain necessary for sustainable commercial aquaculture development
ii. Recommendations on application of best practices for sustainable development of aquaculture
The exercise shall comprise of desk study, consultations largely through exchange of correspondences with relevant stakeholders, field visits and interviews
The successful candidate shall have an advanced university degree in fisheries science or related disciplines.
The successful candidate should have:
- at least five years’ proven working experience in fisheries management and aquaculture development , research or extension in Africa
- sound knowledge on relevant regulatory frameworks, institutional arrangements, farming systems and practices, support sector services and facilities for aquaculture development in AU member states
- at least three years’ experience and involvement in aquaculture strategy development at AU member state or regional levels or regional level
- evidence of good writing skills and clarity of presentation of findings would be essential
Application and deadline